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Thread: The worst genocides of the 20th and 21st Centuries

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    The worst genocides of the 20th and 21st Centuries

    Interesting but disgusting list.

    Here is a tentative list of modern mass murderers and the estimated number of people killed by their orders (excluding enemy armies). In many cases (notably Stalin's and Mao's cases) one has to decide how to consider the millions who died indirectly because of their political decisions. The Chinese cultural revolution caused the death of 30 million people (according to the current Chinese government), but many died of hunger. Stalin is held responsible for the death of millions by Ukrainians, but "only" half a million people were killed by his order. Khomeini sent children to die in the war against Iraq, but it was a war.
    Read the bottom of this page for frequently asked questions on controversial actions such as the atomic bombs, the Iraqi war, etc (that always involve the current superpower and usually the current president of that superpower).
    I welcome feedback if i forgot anything or posted the wrong data, but please always provide reliable sources: webpages are gossips, not sources (and the worst one is Wikipedia, edited by anonymous people). Reliable sources are books written by professional historians who spent decades researching the event.
    An impressive number of readers don't seem to know what "20th century" means and keep sending me emails about the Atlantic slave trade, the Native Americans, the Irish famine, etc.
    See also Wars and Casualties of the 20th and 21st Century.
    Mao Ze-Dong (China, 1958-61 and 1966-69, Tibet 1949-50) 49-78,000,000
    Adolf Hitler (Germany, 1939-1945) 12,000,000 (concentration camps and civilians deliberately killed in WWII plus 3 million Russian POWs left to die)
    Leopold II of Belgium (Congo, 1886-1908) 8,000,000
    Jozef Stalin (USSR, 1932-39) 6,000,000 (the gulags plus the purges plus Ukraine's famine)
    Hideki Tojo (Japan, 1941-44) 5,000,000 (civilians in WWII)
    Ismail Enver (Ottoman Turkey, 1915-20) 1,200,000 Armenians (1915) + 350,000 Greek Pontians and 480,000 Anatolian Greeks (1916-22) + 500,000 Assyrians (1915-20)
    Pol Pot (Cambodia, 1975-79) 1,700,000
    Kim Il Sung (North Korea, 1948-94) 1.6 million (purges and concentration camps)
    Menghistu (Ethiopia, 1975-78) 1,500,000
    Yakubu Gowon (Biafra, 1967-1970) 1,000,000
    Leonid Brezhnev (Afghanistan, 1979-1982) 900,000
    Jean Kambanda (Rwanda, 1994) 800,000
    Saddam Hussein (Iran 1980-1990 and Kurdistan 1987-88) 600,000
    Tito (Yugoslavia, 1945-1987) 570,000
    Suharto (Communists 1965-66) 500,000
    Fumimaro Konoe (Japan, 1937-39) 500,000? (Chinese civilians)
    Jonas Savimbi (Angola, 1975-2002) 400,000
    Mullah Omar - Taliban (Afghanistan, 1986-2001) 400,000
    Idi Amin (Uganda, 1969-1979) 300,000
    Yahya Khan (Pakistan, 1970-71) 300,000 (Bangladesh)
    Ante Pavelic (Croatia, 1941-45) 359,000 (30,000 Jews, 29,000 Gipsies, 300,000 Serbs)
    Benito Mussolini (Ethiopia, 1936; Libya, 1934-45; Yugoslavia, WWII) 300,000
    Mobutu Sese Seko (Zaire, 1965-97) ?
    Charles Taylor (Liberia, 1989-1996) 220,000
    Foday Sankoh (Sierra Leone, 1991-2000) 200,000
    Suharto (Aceh, East Timor, New Guinea, 1975-98) 200,000
    Ho Chi Min (Vietnam, 1953-56) 200,000
    Michel Micombero (Burundi, 1972) 150,000
    Slobodan Milosevic (Yugoslavia, 1992-99) 100,000
    Hassan Turabi (Sudan, 1989-1999) 100,000
    Jean-Bedel Bokassa (Centrafrica, 1966-79) ?
    Richard Nixon (Vietnam, 1969-1974) 70,000 (Vietnamese and Cambodian civilians)
    Efrain Rios Montt (Guatemala, 1982-83) 70,000
    Papa Doc Duvalier (Haiti, 1957-71) 60,000
    Rafael Trujillo (Dominican Republic, 1930-61) 50,000
    Hissene Habre (Chad, 1982-1990) 40,000
    Chiang Kai-shek (Taiwan, 1947) 30,000 (popular uprising)
    Vladimir Ilich Lenin (USSR, 1917-20) 30,000 (dissidents executed)
    Francisco Franco (Spain) 30,000 (dissidents executed after the civil war)
    Fidel Castro (Cuba, 1959-1999) 30,000
    Lyndon Johnson (Vietnam, 1963-1968) 30,000
    Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez (El Salvador, 1932) 30,000
    Hafez Al-Assad (Syria, 1980-2000) 25,000
    Khomeini (Iran, 1979-89) 20,000
    Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe, 1982-87, Ndebele minority) 20,000
    Bashir Assad (Syria, 2012) 14,000
    Rafael Videla (Argentina, 1976-83) 13,000
    Guy Mollet (France, 1956-1957) 10,000 (war in Algeria)
    Harold McMillans (Britain, 1952-56, Kenya's Mau-Mau rebellion) 10,000
    Paul Koroma (Sierra Leone, 1997) 6,000
    Osama Bin Laden (worldwide, 1993-2001) 3,500
    Augusto Pinochet (Chile, 1973) 3,000
    For a list of casualties in wars, see this page.
    Main sources:
    Only those who risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go. T. S. Eliot

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    Were any of those committed by some private association, or anything other than a government?

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    When my son's history teacher told him the Holocaust never happened I spent a week with my son and daughter discussing the Holocaust. We watched videotapes and read articles and both of my children, not being fools, realized the Holocaust did happen. Then we talked about the fact the other holocausts happened before and since.

    When my son was in Turkey with the military he was chatting with a well-educated middle-class Turk and asked about the slaughter of the Kurds. The Turk shook his head sadly and said, "You don't realize our scientists have proven they're not human. They look a lot like humans but they're not."

    My son wrote and said, "You're right. It will keep happening."

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    My family lost a member at Buchenwald, it happened.
    Only those who risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go. T. S. Eliot

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